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The Avalanche Review, 2000-09

The Avalanche Review 2004

TAR 22:3, Feb 2004, p. 5

Blase Reardon is editor (p. 2).

TAR 22:4, May 2004, p. 5

Beacon basin training sites go national, sponsored by BCA. (Lynn Wolfe and Blase Reardon are now co-editors.)

TAR 23:2, Dec 2004, p. 15, "Toepfer, Scott, "Knox Williams: A Pioneer Moves On"

Williams worked for Boeing in 1965 for about a year. "In 1975 Knox would help Mark Moore set up the Northwest Avalanche Forecast Center in Seattle."

"Next in the career of Knox Williams was the 1986 ISSW in Squaw Valley. Sue Ferguson and a small group of avalanche professionals, including Knox, came up with an idea to form the AAAP, or American Association of Avalanche Professionals, (today's AAA)."

The Avalanche Review 2005

TAR 23:4, Apr 2005, p. 16, Brill, Gary, "Observations on Faceted Crusts"

p. 2: Blase Reardon steps down as co-editor. Lynn Wolfe carries on.

p. 16: Gary Brill account of late winter avy on Forbidden Peak in 1998. Bio says he's been an avy educator since 1986.

TAR 24:1, Oct 2005, p. 5, Morris, Halstead, "Colorado Avalanche Information Center Education Programs Continue to Inform"

This article notes that in 2002, the CAIC hosted the inaugural Colorado Snow and Avalanche Workshop (CSAW), and idea proposed by Knox Williams. It was designed as an inexpensive one-day workshop for patrollers, avalanche workers, and rescuers. This may have been the first regional workshop of this kind in the U.S., as it predated the NW workshop (NSAS) by several years.

TAR 24:1, Oct 2005, p. p5, LaChapelle, Ed, "The Ascending Spiral"

Classic essay on the acquisition of avalanche knowledge and experience.

The Avalanche Review 2006

TAR 24:3, Feb 2006, p. 3, "Sue Ferguson, TAR Founder, Passes"

A brief note. Ferguson died of cancer on 12/18/2005.

TAR 24:3, Feb 2006, p. 18, Brennan, John, "Genesis of the Avalauncher"

Monty Atwater and development of the Avalauncher.

TAR 24:4, Apr 2006, p. 1, Kimbrough, Tom, "Of Time and Teachers"

p. 1: Includes information about Norm Wilson.

p. 2: Note: Mark Mueller has a copy of every TAR except the first one.

TAR 24:4, Apr 2006, p. 16, Moore, Mark, "Sue Ann Ferguson: colleague, friend, and so much more"

Ferguson arrived at NWAC after the author did. She made many improvements. She was one of the founders of AAAP, later AAA, "an organization dedicated to bridging the wisdom gap between practitioners and scientists." She wrote an update of LaChapelle's "ABCs of Avalanche Safety" for The Mountaineers. Article includes a photo of Ferguson and a poem by the author.

TAR 24:4, Apr 2006, p. 17, "Sue Ann Ferguson"

Obituary provided by the Ferguson family. Focuses on Sue's later work (second career) in wildfire research.

TAR 24:4, Apr 2006, p. 18, Jackson, Michael, "Artist Point Avalanche: Three Years Later"

Story of an avalanche in which two people were buried for 24 hours and survived. A third party member died.

TAR 25:1, Oct 2006, p. 5, "Norman Arthur Wilson"

Obituary of Norm Wilson, who died on 6/28/2006. (The cover title for this issue is "20 Years of the American Avalanche Association.")

TAR 25:1, Oct 2006, p. 13, Marriott, Rich and Mark Moore, "The Genesis of Avalanche Acres"

Mentions the 1982 ISSW in Bozeman, MT. Google confirms that the first ISSW was in 1982 and the next one was in 1984. Previous workshops were not called "ISSW".

TAR 25:1, Oct 2006, p. 14, Marriott, Rich and Mark Moore, "DOG AT LARGE: The ISSW Wiener Story"

"Stopping for gas and a midnight repast in the small hamlet of Thorpe, Washington, on their way home from ISSW 1982, the Seattle group scored a triumph in the small convenience store--cajoling, threatening, and ultimately securing the overhead inflatable Oscar Meyer wiener display for posterity. He became fondly known as "Oscar" and has been an active participant of every ISSW since, always nattily dressed. Sadly, Oscar was stripped of his dapper attire at ISSW 2004 in Jackson Hole and taken hostage by as yet unknown but obviously misdirected assailants. Recent contact from Oscar indicates that HW ["His Wienerness"] has been well treated, possibly adopted by an Amazon in Mexico. But his exact whereabouts remain a mystery. He will soon be appearing as one of the missing wieners on cartons of margarita mix.

TAR 25:1, Oct 2006, p. 15, "MISSING: Have you seen this wiener?"

A $5,000 reward for "Oscar" or "His Wienerness" born at Bozeman ISSW in 1982, last seen at Jackson Hole ISSW in 2004. Email to

TAR 25:1, Oct 2006, p. 20, Williams, Knox, "Northwest Weather and Avalanche Center"

Knox Williams is a part-time forecaster at NWAC this year, sharing Garth Ferber's job. Also, 2006 marked the 30th anniversary of NWAC. This article includes a poem by Mark Moore from the last NWAC forecast of 2006.

TAR 25:2, Dec 2006, p. 2, "From the AAA"

This article acknowledges the people who were on the steering committee that created AAA in 1986. Also on the committee were Sue Ferguson, Dick Penniman and Betsy Armstrong, "officers of The Avalanche Review, and initial organizers of the proposed association."

The Avalanche Review 2007

TAR 25:4, Apr 2007, p. 18, LaChapelle, David, "The Passing of Edward LaChapelle

Ed LaChapelle died on 2/1/2007 while skiing at Monarch Pass, CO. His ex-wife Delores LaChapelle died 11 days earlier. Ed had contracted polio at age five but was nursed back to health by his mother. The last 25 year of LaChappelle's life were spent with his partner Meg Hunt.

TAR 25:4, Apr 2007, p. 20, Skoog, Lowell, "Edward R. LaChapelle, personal communication"

Excerpts from a taped phone interview on 5 Dec 2001, from

TAR 25:4, Apr 2007, p. 21, LaChapelle, Ed, "The Ascending Spiral"

Reprint of this article from the Oct 2005 issue of TAR.

TAR 25:4, Apr 2007, p. 23, Berwin, Bob, "Skiing Community Loses a Pillar"

Re: Ed LaChapelle, story reprinted from the Summit Daily.

TAR 25:4, Apr 2007, p. 24, "Memories of Ed"

Memories contributed by Rich Marriott, Bill Glude, Rick Grubin, Bruce Tremper, Mark Moore, Jerry Roberts, Karl Berkeland, Rod Newcomb, Bob Ferguson. Mark Moore's recollection mentions "Frank and Donna" who spent the winter of 1973-74 at Washington Pass observing avalanche activity along the North Cascades highway. Bob Ferguson's recollection says that his sister Sue Ferguson had to sign her house over to their father to secure a loan from him to start The Avalanche Review.

TAR 26:2, Dec 2007, p. 10, Marriott, Rich, "The International Snow Science Workshop Throughout the Years"

Summary of ISSW dates, locations and attendance from 1976 through 2006. The author attended his first ISSW at Banff in November 1976 before they were officially ISSWs. He was in his second year of grad school with Ed LaChapelle at UW, working with Mark Moore on a project that would eventually become the NW Avalanche Center. The second workshop was at Vancouver, BC, in November 1980. The third workshop in Bozeman, MT in October 1982 was the first one dubbed ISSW. The article describes earlier informal meetings going back to the 1950s and early 1960s. The current structure of ISSW was hashed out at a lengthy meeting during ISSW 1984.

A complete history of ISSW is available at and in the paper: Marriott R., "The History of ISSW and the ISSW Steering Committee," Proceedings of the International Snow Science Workshop, Telluride, CO, 2006.

The Avalanche Review 2008

TAR 26:3, Feb 2008, p. 18, Barnett, Steve, "Northwest Snow and Avalanche Seminar: NSAS 2007"

A summary of the program with a list of all topics and speakers. Over 250 people attended at the Mountaineers clubhouse in Seattle. [This was the first public avalanche workshop in the Northwest (later NSAW).]

TAR 26:3, Feb 2008, p. 18, Jackson, Michael, "NSAS: An ASAP Event"

Describes the origins of NSAS and the Alpine Safety Awareness Program (ASAP). Michael Jackson has been the executive director of ASAP since 1999.

TAR 26:4, Apr 2008, p. 12, Wheeler, Margaret, "Backcountry Skiing & Gender"

Discusses the possibility of a "gender heuristic trap."

TAR 26:4, Apr 2008, p. 23, Stimberis, John, "Dispatch from Snoqualmie Pass, WA

Summary of avalanche activity during the big winter of 2007-08. At this time, Craig Wilbour is the WSDOT Avalanche Program Manager at Snoqualmie Pass. He supervises a day shift of two avy forecasters, while Stimberis supervises a night shift of two more. Their 105mm recoilless rifle saw its first action in five years. At the time of this writing, the Snoqualmie Pass winter was still underway and the crew had not yet begun their spring efforts to open Chinook Pass.

TAR 27:1, Oct 2008, p. 9, Matous, Ron, "Driving Doctor Ed"

Describes driving to Alaska to collect Ed LaChapelle's 2000 lbs of notes, books, papers, and photos. The materials were delivered to a permanent archive in Silverton, CO, where LaChapelle's son David lives.

TAR 27:1, Oct 2008, p. 11, Bachman, Don, "Dr John Montagne: A Man of the Mountains"

Mantagne is described as the last of the first generation of U.S. avalanche researchers that included Monty Atwater, Dick Stillman, Norm Wilson, and Ed LaChapelle.

The Avalanche Review 2009

TAR 27:3, Feb 2009, p. 4, "2008 AAA Awards"

Chris Landry received a special service award for stewarding and coordinating the installation of the LaChapelle library in the Silverton, CO archival facilities.

TAR 27:3, Feb 2009, p. 9, Wilbour, Craig, "Northwest Snow and Avalanche Summit 2008"

Notes from the 2nd annual NSAS, attended by over 250 people. Ken White and Roland Emetaz received awards for their long-term support of NWAC and dedication to avalanche education.

Craig Wilbour started on the pro-patrol at Alpental in the 1968-69 season and worked there seven years, five as assistant patrol director. He then went to work for WSDOT doing avalanche control on Snoqualmie Pass. In 1978 he became the WSDOT avalanche control supervisor for that region.

TAR 27:3, Feb 2009, p. 23, Johnson, Greg, "Great Achievements in Avalanche Prediction Among America's First: Edward A. Beals"

Discusses the work of Edward Beals, the US Weather Bureau district forecaster in Porland, Oregon, who was involved in forecasting during the 1910 Wellington avalanche. He slowly started to understand avalanches, becoming one of America's earliest avalanche experts. He published the first avalanche warning in the U.S. on February 7, 1916, in The Oregonian. The warning was distributed to newspapers in WA, OR, and ID.

TAR 27:3, Feb 2009, p. 26, Atkins, Dale, "History 101: Avalanche Cords"

They go back to the early 1900s. A 1975 Swiss study concluded that they're not reliable.

TAR 27:4, Apr 2009, p. 1, Stimberis, John, "Open by Summer: Chinook Pass, Washington"

Brief description of the annual effort to reopen the Chinook Pass highway.

TAR 27:4, Apr 2009, p. 4, Morrison, Patty, "Northwest Blaster's Seminar"

Description of a seminar on explosives held in Darrington. Information from various regions was provided by John Stimberis, Craig Wilbour, Mike Stanford, Chet Mowbry, Jon Andrews, Evan Woods, Rob Gibson and the author.

TAR 28:1, Oct 2009, p. 3, "Metamorphism"

Mike Stanford was recently selected to fill the role of WSDOT avalanche supervisor for Stevens Pass. He has worked for WSDOT since 1990. He replaces Marty Schmoker, who had been the Stevens Pass avalanche supervisor since 1992. Schmoker was a proponent of using surplus military artillery for avalanche control.

TAR 28:1, Oct 2009, p. 3, "David LaChapelle Passes Away"

The son of Ed and Delores LaChapelle died from throat cancer on 7/21/2009 at the age of 56.

TAR 28:2, Dec 2009, p. 7, Bachman, Don, "LaChapelle Library Catalogued in Detail"

The library was curated this summer by Betsy and Richard Armstrong. The materials are held in space owned by the San Juan Historical Society in Silverton, CO. Those interested in journeying to Silverton to seek out specific material may contact Don Bachman by email at for the collection description and Excel spreadsheet.

The Avalanche Review 2010

TAR 28:3, Feb 2010, p. 8, "3rd Annual Northwest Snow and Avalanche Summit (NSAS)"

Summary of the event held at the REI flagship store in Seattle.

TAR 28:3, Feb 2010, p. 10, Emetaz, Roland, "ISSW Europe"

From the author's bio: Roland V. Emetaz, aka "Mr Em," is a retired forester with the USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest region. After devoting his long, enjoyable career advocating outdoor safety, quality customer service, and teamwork, Mr Em continues as a volunteer teaching those lessons. He represents the Northwest Weather and Avalanche Center during avalanche-awareness programs. At other times he is on assignment with the Central Washington All Hazards Incident Management Team (one of 54 in the nation) managing incidents as diverse as wildfires and hurricanes from the Arctic Circle to the Gulf Coast. Office: Starbucks-I205/Mill Plain Blvd-Vancouver, WA,

TAR 28:4, Apr 2010, p. 8, "Historic 1910 Wellington Tragedy"

This spring marks the 100th anniversary of the Wellington avalanche near Stevens Pass that killed 96 persons. The brief article includes two photos.

TAR 28:4, Apr 2010, p. 10, McCormack, Ed and John Stimberis, "Small Unmanned Aircraft Tested for Use in Avalanche Control"

Tests of drones to deliver avalanche bombs along SR-20 in the North Cascades. Fine photo of drone in front of Liberty Bell Mtn.

TAR 29:1, Oct 2010, p. 2, "From the Editor"

Lynn Wolfe was asked by Rod Newcomb to compile a history of avalanche forecasting in the US. She's developing a proposal for Mountaineers Books. Interviews will be stored and available as part of a greater AAA history project.

TAR 29:1, Oct 2010, p. 8: Morrison, Patty, "12th Annual NW Forecasters Meeting"

Meeting held 3/22-23/2010 at White Pass. Jon Andrews is lead forecaster for Stevens Pass ski area. Chet Mowbrey is lead forecaster at Crystal Mtn. John Meriwether was former patrol director at Stevens Pass. He gave a presentation on BARK, backcountry avalanche rescue K-9s. Jay Bright and Harlan Sheppard gave a presentation from Cascade Powder Cats. Chris Talbot is patrol director at White Pass. Patty Morrison is a long-time snow safety officer at Stevens Pass (and NW rep to the AAA board, TAR Dec 2010).

TAR 29:1, Oct 2010, p. 13: Brennan, John, "Montgomery Atwater, Avalanche Hunter & Author"

Describes the little known fact that Atwater was a prolific writer of fiction and non-fiction books. He graduated from Harvard in 1926 with a degree in English Literature. The article includes a list of Atwater's published books.

TAR 29:1, Oct 2010, p. 14: Statham, Grant et al, "The North American Public Avalanche Danger Scale"

Describes the revised danger scale to be implemented across Canada and the U.S. in 2010/11.

TAR 29:2, Dec 2010, p. 3, Morris, Halsted, "Daniel Howlett and Dan Judd Awarded Honorary Memberships"

They were recognized for implementing the website. Mark Moore has noted that before the arrival of the Internet, the American avalanche community was without form. Howlett and Judd's vision was to use to unite the avalanche community.

TAR 29:2, Dec 2010, p. 9, Anderson, Bob and Bill Morris, "Porphyry Place: the LaChapelle-Hunt Educational Homesite"

Proposal to make Ed LaChapelle's former home in McCarthy, AK part of the Wrangell Mountain Center.

The Avalanche Review 2011

TAR 29:3, Feb 2011, p. 5, "Mark Moore - October 2010, Honorary Membership"

AAA's highest award goes to Mark Moore for his 38 year career. The article includes a bio of Mark. It says that the Central Avalanche Hazards Forecasting program, begun in 1975, officially became NWAC in 1978. NWAC is said to be the largest network of remote weather stations of any avalanche program in North America, with 10 million user hits per year. Several committee chairmanships are noted. Mark was nominated by Janet Kellam, Rich Marriott, Patty Morrison, Craig Sterbenz, Paul Baugher, Garth Ferber, Kenny Kramer, Roland Emetaz, and Knox Williams.

TAR 29:3, Feb 2011, p. 8, Gordon, Craig, "Third Annual Utah Snow and Avalanche Workshop"

Evidence that the Northwest Snow and Avalanche Seminar (Workshop), started in 2007, was an early part of this trend.

TAR 29:3, Feb 2011, p. 9, Stimberis, John, "Pacific Northwest Happenin's"

Summary of recent events in the Northwest: a blasters workshop around Halloween and the 4th Northwest Snow and Avalanche Summit (NSAS) the following weekend.

TAR 29:3, Feb 2011, p. 11, Grove, Kevin, "Book Review: Fifty Classic Ski Descents of North America"

The reviewer asks the question: What makes a ski descent classic in your eyes? He refers to Mihaly Cziksentmihalyi's concept of flow when commenting on the route selection.

TAR 29:3, Feb 2011, p. 12, Urban, Jake, "Snowmobile Avalanche Education in the US: The Seed of the Project"

Important look at a growing problem. There are several articles about snowmobiles and avalanche safety in this issue.

TAR 29:3, Feb 2011, p. 31, Turner, Ken, "Youth Avalanche Education Programs in the Pacific Northwest"

Describes efforts initiated by the Friends of NWAC (FOAC).

TAR 29:4, Apr 2011, p. 4, Stimberis, John, "NWAC Update: La Nina, Hooray!"

Mentions Feb 2011 Vertfest rando race in honor of Monika Johnson.

TAR 29:4, Apr 2011, p. 5, Henningsen, Oyvind, "In Memoriam: Monika Johnson"

Memorial article.

TAR 29:4, Apr 2011, p. 5, Grove, Kevin, "Our Dear Friend Monika [Johnson]"

Memorial article.

TAR 29:4, Apr 2011, p. 22, Otter, Dan, "When Things Go Wrong"

Account of an avalanche accident involving the author on Kendall Peak near Snoqualmie Pass.

TAR 29:4, Apr 2011, p. 26, Hammonds, Kevin, "Avalanche Forecasting for an Untouchable Snowpack"

A meteorological analysis of the events leading to the June 5, 2010 avalanche that buried 11 (one killed) on Mt Rainier's Ingraham Glacier.

TAR 30:1, Oct 2011, p. 2, Wolfe, Lynne, "See you at the 'SAW'"

The editor's notes reflect the growing movement toward regional Snow and Avalanche Workshops in autumn.

TAR 30:1, Oct 2011, p. 5, Stimberis, John, "Craig Wilbour Retires from WSDOT"

Good summary of Craig Wilbour's background, from growing up in Holden above Lake Chelan through helping develop the WSDOT highway control program at Chinook Pass.

TAR 30:1, Oct 2011, p. 10, Grubin, Rick, "Avalanche Acronym Soup: AAA, NSP, AIARE"

The first avalanche forecast center in the US was created in Colorado in the 1970s, thanks to Art Judson and Knox Williams. It was an outgrowth of the Westwide Avalanche Network (WWAN), started at USFS offices in Colorado.

"The first International Snow Science Workshop (ISSW) was convened in 1982, and Sue Ferguson first published The Avalanche Review that same year. The American Association of Avalanche Professionals, now the AAA, was founded by Ferguson, Betsy Armstrong, and Dick Penniman at the 1986 ISSW at Squaw Valley, California. Principal membership consisted of professional ski patrollers and forecasters at various avalanche centers and was rounded out by academic researchers."

TAR 30:1, Oct 2011, p. 15, Ferber, Garth and Doug Abromeit, "US Avalanche Centers Survey"

A statistical look to better understand similarities and differences between the various centers.

TAR 30:1, Oct 2011, p. 31, "2010/11 Season Summary"

The NW section describes snow patterns through the season and several fatal accidents.

TAR 30:2, Dec 2011, p. 8, "Northern Rockies Avalanche Safety Workshop Kicked Off in October"

First annual "SAW" organized in Montana, more evidence of this trend.

TAR 30:2, Dec 2011, p. 16, Stimberis, John, "Spring on Chinook Pass"

A selection of photos of the work opening Chinook Pass highway in spring.

TAR 30:2, Dec 2011, p. 18, Huovinen, Christine and Jurg Schwizer, "Beginnings of Snow and Avalanche Research and the SLF"

Description of the first avalanche research facility in Switzerland in the 1930s and the origins of the first avalanche bulletin.

TAR 30:2, Dec 2011, p. 20, "30 Years of The Avalanche Review"

Reflections from editors past and present. Includes letter from Bob Ferguson about how his sister, Sue Ferguson, TAR's first editor, had to sign her house over to her father in order to secure a loan from him to start TAR.

Bruce Tremper muses that with the loss of Ed LaChapelle and Sue Ferguson, perhaps only Rich Marriott and Mark Moore remember the very early history of TAR. Tremper describes Sue Ferguson as "the brilliant and visionary founder of The Avalanche Review as well as the American Avalanche Association." He observes: "Sue was the perfect--perhaps the only--person in the avalanche community at the time, capable of starting The Avalanche Review. She was a brilliant, accomplished, worldly, woman with a PhD in geophysics, an ex legal secretary, a cartoonist, a protegee of Ed LaChapelle, and she already knew much of the avalanche community in both the US and in Europe."

On p. 22, Steve Conger describes TAR volumes 12-18. Faerthen Felix and Blase Reardon also describe their work as TAR editors. On p. 27, current editor Lynne Wolfe discusses the future of TAR.

The Avalanche Review 2012

TAR 30:3, Feb 2012, p. 12, Kostrewski, Dan, "Northwest Snow and Avalanche Summit Continues to Educate and Inspire"

Summary of the fifth NSAS in autumn 2011. The author notes that NSAS was started five years ago at the urging of the AAA by Education Committee member Michael Jackson.

TAR 30:3, Feb 2012, p. 13, Shefftz, Jonathan S., "First Annual Eastern Snow & Avalanche Workshop Wows Capacity Crowd"

The movement spreads to the east coast.

TAR 30:3, Feb 2012, p. 14, Toepfer, Scott, "Colorado Snow and Avalanche Workshop Celebrates Ten Years"

Workshop started in 2002.

TAR 30:3, Feb 2012, p. 21, Morin, Chris, "The MLK Event at Crystal Mountain: A DIY Guide to Tree Removal"

Includes photos by the author and Andrew Longstreth. Describes the avalanche cycle (control work) that caused the big Employee Housing slide that cleared out 1000 trees. The slide occurred in early April on a crust that formed over the Martin Luther King holiday in mid-January.

TAR 30:3, Feb 2012, p. 23, Perla, Ron, "Early USFS National Avalanche Schools"

Discussion of USFS avalanche schools at Alta, UT from the early 1950s to 1971. Describes later developments that led to the birth of ISSW and AAA.

TAR 30:4, Apr 2012, p. 28, Gadd, Will, "The Grand Delusion"

The first of several good articles examining risk in outdoor recreation.

TAR 31:1, Oct 2012, p. 21, Kramer, Kenny, "Northwest Weather and Avalanche Center"

Summary of the avalanche season.

The Avalanche Review 2013

TAR 31:3, Feb 2013, p. 12, Standford, Joanne, "Northwest Snow and Avalanche Summit"

A summary of the "fifth" (acutally 7th) NW summit, held at UW's Kane Hall with just over 300 people attending.

TAR 31:3, Feb 2013, p. 13, Emetaz, Roland, "Honoring Mark Moore, in 10 Lines or Less"

The author first met Mark Moore at the end of the 1977/78 winter season, at a meeting where the UW handed off the completion of a research program funded by WSDOT called the Central Avalanche Hazard Forecasting Project. At the time it was determined that the Forest Service would be the lead agency. Emetaz represented USFS and went on to serve as the supervisor of the new program (NWAC). This issue contains reflections and well-wishes for Mark Moore by Craig Sterbenz, Karl Birkeland, Rich Marriott, Bruce Tremper, Ron Perla, Pam Speers-Hayes and Peter Speers, John Stimberis, Laura Green, Don Bachman, Dave Waag, Jill Fredston, and Julia Rutherford.

TAR 31:3, Feb 2013, p. 20, Veenhuizen, Dan, "A Survey of Ski Area Boundary Policies in the Pacific Northwest: Is Consistency the Answer?"

A look at inconsistent boundary policies in the region.

TAR 32:1, Oct 2013, p. 18, Kramer, Kenny, "Northwest Avalanche Center"

Kenny Kramer became the new director of NWAC following the retirement of Mark Moore after 37 years of service, starting when the center was founded. This article discusses the 2012-13 snow season.

TAR 32:2, Dec 2013, p. 2, "Welcome President Stimbuck"

John Stimberis is the new AAA president. A former ski patroller, his current job is running the WSDOT avalanche forecast and control program for Snoqualmie, White and Chinook Passes.

TAR 32:2, Dec 2013, p. 24, "Isaak, Jerry, "The Impact of Social Media on Decision-Making"

Analysis. Bruce Tremper offers a companion article, "Two Sides of Social Media." Another article discusses "The Elusive Power of Speaking and Listening."

The Avalanche Review 2014

TAR 32:3, Feb 2014, p. 4, Waag, Dave, "NSAW 2013 Summary"

The article describes this as the 6th NSAW (formerly NSAS). NWAC has added three paid observers to their crew. Michael Jackson is still serving as the main NSAW organizer.

TAR 32:3, Feb 2014, p. 5, D'Amico, Dennis, "NWAC Early Season Updates"

According to this article, about 500 people attended the November 2013 NSAW held on the UW campus. 2012-13 was Dennis's first season as an NWAC forecaster.

TAR 32:3, Feb 2014, p. 22, Gaffney, Rob, "A Look at Sportgevity"

Brief description of the Sportgevity project, and effort to save lives by providing a counterbalance to the growing high-risk culture.

TAR 32:3, Feb 2014, p. 23, Roberts, Van, "Strategies from the Front Line"

Thoughts on investigating and analyzing accidents. One of several articles in this issue on accident analysis.

TAR 32:3, Feb 2014, p. 26, Castillo, Rob, "Tunnel Vision at Tunnel Creek"

Account of the fatal 2012 avalanche at Stevens Pass, by one of the survivors.

TAR 32:3, Feb 2014, p. 29, Branch, John, "Tunnel Creek: Assembling the Story of 'Snow Fall'"

By the author of the Pulitzer Prize winning New York Times article.

TAR 33:1, Oct 2014, p. 1, D'Amico, Dennis, "Granite Mountain Avalanche"

NWAC report of March 2014 accident. The NWAC regional report continues on p. 18. In 2013-14, NWAC launched the Pro Observer program, hiring six observers for five forecast zones: Olympics, Mt Baker, NW Cascades, SE Cascades (including Mt Hood) and Seattle area. NWAC conducted 125 public awareness classes which reached over 5000 people.

The Avalanche Review 2015

TAR 33:3, Feb 2015, p. 1, Stimberis, John, "Incident on Chinook Pass"

Story of an avalanche that buried a bulldozer working to clear the pass on April 26, 2014 (continued on p. 17).

TAR 33:3, Feb 2015, p. 14, Fink, Patrick, "Educational Update from NSAW"

Report on the 9th annual NW Snow and Avalanche Workshop at UW's HUB.

TAR 34:1, Oct 2015, p. 30, "Northwest Avalanche Center"

2014-15 was a poor snow year. Near normal snowpack was reported in the NE Cascades and high on the volcanic peaks. Only one avalanche warning (1/5/15) and one special advisory (4/16/15) were issued by NWAC this season. NWAC will be taking over the annual NSAW workshop in November 2015. (Previous NSAW's were organized by Michael Jackson.) Two new pro observers were hired this year, bringing the field staff to eight for the program's second season.

TAR 34:2, Dec 2015, p. 1, Photo

Cover photo by John Stimberis of Alan Willard of WSDOT firing a howitzer toward Liberty Bell above Highway 20 in the North Cascades.

This issue of TAR has several articles on the topic of mentorship, including one by Margaret Wheeler.

TAR 34:2, Dec 2015, p. 20, Newcomb, Rod, "A Partial History of the Avalanche Industry in the 60s and 70s"

Recollections of work with Ed LaChapelle and others, mainly in the Rocky Mountains of Utah, Wyoming and Colorado.

TAR 34:2, Dec 2015, p. 21, Bachman, Don, "Avalanche Record Storage"

Brief discussion of avalanche record archives including the Silverton Historical Society Archive (which houses the Ed LaChapelle collection), the National Avalanche Center in Bozeman MT, and the AAC club facility in Golden, CO.

The Avalanche Review 2016

TAR 34:3, Feb 2016, p. 5, Stimberis, John, "December 2015: A recap"

Discusses the record setting month of December at Snoqualmie Pass, with 193.3 inches of snow.

TAR 34:3, Feb 2016, p. 12, Cohen, Tyler, "NSAW: 9 Things I Learned"

The November 2015 NSAW was attended by 600 people at UW.

TAR 34:3, Feb 2016, p. 16, "Pro/Rec Split: Recreational Guidelines Update"

An interview of Kirk Bachman by Sean Zimmerman-Wall, describing a change in avalanche education to create separate tracks for recreational and professional users.

TAR 34:4, Apr 2016, p. 11, "Pro/Rec Split: Progress Report"

Interview with Dallas Glass by Sean Zimmerman-Wall.

TAR 34:4, Apr 2016, p. 23, Jackson, Michael, "Backcountry Communication Protocol"

A proposed system for a party to agree on hazard evaluation and trip planning.

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